Soul of Karate-Do
Initial Move and Posture
Japan Karate Association
the early days of karate-do,
for some years after 1935 college karate clubs all over Japan held inter-school
matches. They were called kokangeiko, 'exchange of courtesies practice' and
the participants freely attacked each other with all the karate techniques
at their disposal. Their original purpose was to promote friendship between
clubs. The matches were to consist of displays of kata, the set patterns of
defence and attack, or of practice in attack and counterattack. The latter
was ideally a formalized affair. One person attacked, only once. Then his
opponent counterattacked, again just once. They continued in strictly controlled
alternation. But the young blood of the students ran too hot to be satisfied
with such tameness. They could not resist the temptation to use to the fullest
the techniques they had learned and the powers they had gained through daily
training. There would be five or six contestants from each university in these
free-style matches. Giving a brave yell at a signal, the paired opponents
began to fight. If a melee developed, it was the responsibility of the judges
to step in and part them. The truth is, the judges rarely had time to exercise
their responsibility. It was all over in 30 seconds. Some of the contestants
had broken teeth or twisted noses. Others had earlobes nearly ripped off or
were paralyzed from a kick to the belly. The injured crouching here and there
around the dojo--it was a bloody scene. Karate in its early days had no match
rules, although there was a gentlemen's agreement to avoid attacking vital
organs. Despite the wounded, the custom of holding such "matches"
remained popular for some time. I was a student in a karate club in those
days. If the custom were to continue, I feared, karate would degenerate into
a barbarous and dangerous technique. Yet, defeating an opponent is the common
aim of all the martial arts. A person must fight freely in a match, using
his techniques, if he is to maintain his skill. If that is so, I thought,
then karate is too powerful and too dangerous for match competition.
was developed in Okinawa, where the people were
strictly forbidden to own weapons. Its practitioners
there usually trained themselves alone through practice
centering on kata. They held no matches. Although
we can maintain our technique through practice without
an opponent, we cannot improve our mental and physical
conditioning in preparation for actual battle.
Specifically, we need to learn how to overcome anxiety
or how far we should stand from an opponent. Without
practice against an opponent, we cannot have the
chance to work at our greatest capacity. I was in
a quandary. Fighting is dangerous, but fighting
is indispensable. Only through it can we maintain
the essential skills of our martial art. Even after
graduating from college, I still kept hoping to
see the development of a true match that would make
karate a modern martial art. Once I organized a
match with the contestants wearing protective gear,
but the special clothing was an obstacle and turned
out to be itself the cause of unexpected injuries.
I had to keep looking for a solution. That was just
before the beginning of World War II.
the war, Japan abandoned the militarism of the past
and made a fresh start as a nation based on pacifism.
Even so, the college karate clubs kept holding their
wild fighting contests, and the number of injured
kept mounting. In the new climate of peace, violence
in any form was a hateful thing. If karate remains
as it is, I thought, it will be regarded as the
embodiment of violence and will eventually fade
away. Yet judo and kendo (fencing) were developing
as sports. The glorious contests of swimmers and
baseball players were brightening the postwar gloom.
Young karate practitioners began to hope that karate
would become a sport, would have rules for matches.
I thought it was high time we made a sport of karate.
I studied the rules of many sports and observed
matches. Finally, I developed match rules and styles
of fighting that allowed contestants to use karate
techniques to the fullest without injuring each
other. However, if we put too much emphasis on fighting,
we become loose in technique. To prevent that I
made a contest of the kata, too. The matches I had
worked out, consisting of free-style fighting and
kata, were first performed in Tokyo at the All Japan
Grand Karate Tournament in October 1957, under the
auspices of the Japan Karate Association. They were
most impressive--attack and counter-attack with
rapid, powerful, well-controlled technique. The
kata contestants displayed quick, beautiful movements.
Both the fighting and the kata left the audience
impressed. Not one contestant was injured in the
free-style fighting. The new matches were a great
success. That was the beginning of the free-style
fighting matches performed today in karate tournaments
around the world. Finally a match form close to
actual fighting had come to the public.
As you can see, I solved my quandary and succeeded
in creating the karate match. I'm still afraid of
one thing however. As karate matches become popular,
karate practitioners become too absorbed in winning.
It is easy to think that gaining a point matters
most, and matches are likely to lose the quickness
of action characteristic of karate. In that case,
karate matches would degenerate into mere exchanges
of blows. Moreover, I cannot say whether the idea
of free-fighting styles matches the soul of karate
as taught by Master Funakoshi Gichin, the founder
of karate-do. For as you will later see, the soul
of his karate requires quite a high standard of
of Virtuous Men Master Funakoshi often
recited an old Okinawan saying: "Karate is
the art of virtuous men." Needless to say,
for students of karate to thoughtlessly boast of
their power or to display their technique in scuffles
goes against the soul of karate-do. The meaning
of karate-do goes beyond victory in a contest of
mastery or self-defence techniques. Unlike common
sports, karate-do has a soul of its own. To be a
true master is to understand the soul of karate-do
as a martial Way. Karate-do has grown popular these
days, and its soul is apt to pass from our minds.
Here I would discuss the soul of karate, returning
to the roots of that martial Way. It is said that
karate has no initial move (sente). That is an admonition
to practitioners not to launch the initial attack
and concurrently a strict prohibition against thoughtlessly
using the techniques of karate. The masters of karate,
especially Master Funakoshi, strictly admonished
their pupils with those words again and again. In
fact, it is not going too far to say that they represent
the soul of karate-do.
In karate, the power of the whole body is focused
on one part, such as a fist or foot, so that immense
destructive power is loosed in a moment; hence the
warning: Regard your fists and feet as swords. In
a match the attacker's fist or foot is in principle
aimed at a target a few centimeters, an inch or
so, from the opponent's body in order not to injure
Out of consideration of such destructive power,
come the words: There is no initial move in karate.
That spirit is embodied in the kata, the patterns
forming the core of karate-do practice. Karate has
two forms of practice: kata and kumite (mock fighting).
The kata are patterns of combined defence and attack
that assume four or eight enemies right, left, in
front and in back. As far as I know, there are 40
or 50 kinds of kata. Each begins with defence (uke).
You may argue that since karate was born as an art
of self-defence, it is natural that it has no initial
move. That is certainly true, but if you immediately
conclude from the words, "There is no initial
move in karate," that you can freely counterattack,
you have not yet fully grasped the soul of karate-do.
The underlying meaning of those words is much deeper.
In addition to refraining from attacking first,
practitioners of karate are required not to create
an atmosphere that will lead to trouble. They also
must not visit places where trouble is likely to
happen. To observe those prohibitions, the practitioner
must cultivate a gentle attitude toward others and
a modest heart. That is the spirit underlying the
words, "There is no initial move in karate".
And that spirit is the soul of karate-do. One master
says: "Karate is based on attempts to avoid
an trouble, so as not to be hit by others and not
to hit others." Another says: "Harmoniously
avoid trouble, and abhor violence. Otherwise, you
will lose trust and will perish."
At the bottom of the soul of karate-do lies the
wish for harmony among people. Such harmony is based
on courtesy, and it is said that the Japanese Martial
Ways begin with courtesy and end with courtesy.
Such is the case with karate-do. Master Funakoshi
collected the kata of his forerunners then systematized
them into 15 kinds of kata for practice. One, called
Kanku, symbolizes the wish for harmony, the soul
of karate-do. Unlike any other pattern, it begins
with an action unrelated to defence and attack.
The hands are put together, palms outward, and the
practitioner looks at the sky through the triangular
hole formed by his thumbs and fingers. It expresses
self-identification with nature, tranquility, and
the wish for harmony. The practitioner of karate
must always have a modest heart, a gentle attitude,
and a wish for harmony. Karate is truly the art
of virtuous men.
and Void "There
is no initial move in karate" is one saying.
"There is no posture (kamae) in karate"
is another. The former represents karate-do's ethical
aspect. The latter summarizes the proper attitude
in training or actual fighting. Both sayings are
integral elements of the soul of karate-do. When
we say, "There is no posture in karate,"
we basically mean this: you should not stiffen your
body; you should always relax yourself to be ready
for any attack from any direction. When the gale
blows, the stiff oak resists and breaks, the flexible
willow bends and survives.
But even if there is no physical posture, you may
think a certain mental posture necessary. You cannot
relax your attention. That is why in karate-do it
is said: there is posture but no posture. Practitioners
assume a mental posture but not a physical posture.
Actually, that is not the highest stage of the art.
At the highest stage, practitioners of karate should
in actual fighting have posture of neither body
nor mind. Herein lies the deep meaning of "There
is no posture in karate". It is this highest
stage, the essence common to the Martial Ways of
Japan, that I would next explain.
In the 17th century, the Zen priest Takuan gave
Yagyu Munenori a treatise which had great influence
on the ideological side of the Martial Ways of Japan.
It is popularly called "Fudochi Shinmyo Floku"
and in it, Takuan wrote:
"If you place your mind on the movements of
your opponent, your mind is absorbed by the movements
of your opponent. If your mind is on the sword of
your opponent, your mind is absorbed by the sword
of your opponent. If your mind is on cutting your
opponent, your mind is absorbed by cutting your
opponent. If your mind is on your sword, your mind
is absorbed by your sword. If your mind is on not
being cut, your mind is absorbed by not being cut...
" Where, then, should the mind be! You should
put your mind nowhere. Then your mind is diffused
throughout your body, stretched out, totally unfettered.
If your arms are important, it serves your arms.
If your legs are important, it serves your legs.
If your eyes are important, it serves your eyes.
It works freely in the body wherever necessary.
"If you concentrate on one place, your mind,
absorbed by that place, is useless. If you are worried
about where to place your mind, your mind is absorbed
by that worry. Ku should throw off worry and reason.
Let your mind go over your entire body, and never
fix your mind on a certain place. Then your mind
must accurately serve in response to the needs of
each part of your body."
short, the Zen priest says that the mind, if placed
nowhere, is everywhere. The concept reflects Buddhism's
abhorrence, especially in the Zen Sect, of attachment
and bonds. Such antipathy is based on the concept
of "void" in Mahayana Buddhism. In Buddhism
the English "void" or "emptiness"
translates the Japanese word ku, derived from the
Sanskrit sunyata. Its original meaning is to be
lacking in or to be wanting in. Mahayana Buddhism
arose in opposition to the rigid doctrine of traditional
Buddhism and made the bold assertion that we should
not be trapped by the difference between good and
evil, or enlightenment and illusion. That assertion
seems to destroy ethical value, but Mahayana Buddhism
claims that it strengthens ethical value. When we
reach the stage wherein we adhere to nothing, our
actions are naturally good. The basic idea of Mahayana
Buddhism, Ku, is different from nothingness and
is difficult to understand. It cannot be explained
in a few words, but perhaps a specific example will
help you understand void and one of its aspects--denial
we first learn how to drive a car, we find it very
difficult and take every precaution. But once we
have thoroughly mastered driving, we can be quite
at ease while we drive and still not break the rules.
We aren't very conscious of our driving technique.
Mahayana Buddhism aims at attaining the stage of
enlightenment without worrying about the difference
between good and evil, or enlightenment and illusion.
That, too, is the highest stage of actual fighting
in karatedo. There we do not have posture of mind.
In the martial arts, when we have attained the highest
stage after long years of training, we return to
the first stage. In the first stage, where we do
not know any posture or technique,we do not fix
our minds anywhere. When attacked, we simply respond
unconsciously, without strategy. But as we come
to understand posture, the use of technique, and
fighting tactics through our study of technique,
we occupy our minds with all sorts of things. The
mind is divided into attack or counterattack and
loses its freedom. After a long period of further
practice, we can move unconsciously, freely, and
That is the highest stage of karatedo, the true
meaning of "there is no posture of mind".
That stage can be reached only after hard and painstaking
training, but it has nothing to do with physical
strength. In the West, physical strength counts
for much in the martial arts. Men of a certain age
must quit. Karate-do, however, emphasizes technique
based on the practice of kata. We can continue to
practice this martial art for a lifetime, no matter
how much our physical strength declines. The more
we practice, the more gracefully we can move. Finally,
we attain the highest stage, where there is posture
in neither mind nor body.
Times' presents U.S. National Coach
Yukiyoshi Marutani - An Interview with America's leading Gen Sei Ryu
practitioner by John & Steven Heyl
Times: When did you begin your martial arts
Sensei: I started in 1967 with a college Karate
club. There were classes Monday through Saturday
for three to four hours a day. In addition, you
were expected to do personal training like hitting
the makiwara during the lunch break. Many times
my hands or feet were bloody...
What was the training like?
It was always my college sempai (seniors) who led
those early workouts. We did nothing but basics...again,
and again, basics. I remember wondering to myself
after three weeks if this was all that Karate was...nothing
new for three weeks...three hours a day!
Somebody told me that you failed your first kyu
exam. Is this true?
Yes, I failed. There were about thirty students
who tested that time. They split us into two groups...the
upper group passed. The lower group (my group) failed.
My sempai told me I was a bad kicker...my center
of gravity was too high...everything! They were
always yelling at me. Later on, they were all amazed
that I stuck it out and progressed as much as I
What made you stay with it? You could have quit
but you didn't...in fact, you increased your training
to six or seven days a week for four or five hours
You know, the first month I hated it. The second
month...I began to like it. My mind and body became
fixed on the simple acts of hitting and punching.
I failed the testing but after that we had our first
Gasshuku training. It was long...about ten days.
Running in the morning...punching until our hands
were bloody...and afterwards, we had to clean up
and cook. That was ten long days. After that...the
feeling was so different. It was like being a new
person. I became more involved with karate...working
on my punching...working with seiken-tsuki. At night,
I would train my eyes. I was a shy person. On the
trains I would look into people's eyes--never moving
my eyes from theirs...they hated it! I have heard
about the "Eye of the Tiger" or something
Who were your main instructors?
I had many sempai but my main instructor is Kunihiko
What is Gensei-Ryu? Marutani: I don't have a lot
of details. I learned through my instructors that
Mr. Shukumine (the founder) started Gensei-Ryu after
World War II. Mr. Shukumine's instructor was Soko
Kushimoto, an Okinawan. We can see through the kata
that it is very close to Tomari-Te. I only met Mr.
Shukumine twice, but I understand that he had a
very strong character and that he was a very philosophical
man. GEN means the universe and SEI means control--so
GENSEI is to "control the universe". He
wrote the kanji and analyzed it to more fully understand
what it meant... physically and spiritually.
What makes it different from the other more well-known
I think Mr. Shukumine had done research in body
movement...like gymnastics. I believe he was also
involved in that sport. So, the body movement in
Gensei-Ryu was more natural...more reasonable. He
also figured out how to incorporate certain movements
from gymnastics (like jumps, flips, and handsprings)
into karate techniques. These sorts of techniques
helped to make the movements faster...more surprising.
When did you qualify for the Japanese National Team?
I believe it was 1974.
What was the selection process like?
I remember the first team selections were in 1972
or so. There were about 150 people in the selection
pool. All the top people from the tournaments except
for the JKA. We ran, we free-sparred. If you got
hurt...there was no sympathy. Good-bye...thank you
for coming! You packed your bags and went home.
No one was special. If your karate was bad and you
couldn't survive... you went home. They started
with about 150 of us--all championship caliber--and
ended with 7 or 8.
How long were you on the National Team?
I think it was about 7 years. I retired from competition
in 1981 or so.
What were some of the highlights of your time with
the Japanese National Team?
I was on the team for the World Championships in
Long Beach, Tokyo, and Madrid. I took the bronze
medal (70 kg.) at the World Games in Santa Clara.
Who were your teammates? Marutani: During the seven
years, I trained alongside Mr. Murase, Mr. Nishimura,
and Mr. Maeda and several others. Those three are
on the current coaching staff for the Japanese National
Can you tell us a little about those days, about
training with the team?
We met about 7 or 8 times a year for three days.
The first one was longer. It was a good time. We
trained and trained...we also drank...but then the
coaches changed. They wanted us to be more like
college students, younger. I was 32 or 33 at the
end. Now, the maximum age is 29. I don't know the
details. It is a brand new team.
When were you first exposed to international competition?
My first memorable encounter was in Tokyo. I was
matched against a big Italian. I couldn't move.
He couldn't move. We were both so nervous. the first
time in the spotlight with 20, 000 spectators watching
me...especially the Japanese team. I managed to
get past him and relaxed in the later rounds. I
still remember...the coaches were inexperienced
as far as competition was concerned. They didn't
understand how to coach for sport...how to use strategy
to score a good point.
This situation has improved as seasoned competitors
like yourself and your teammates, Murase Sensei
& Nishimura Sensei, have moved into coaching?
That is right. They can explain concepts better
to the new generation. They understand the point
of competition, or at least can put themselves into
the position of the competitor and explain it in
those terms. Some of the first coaches understood
the concepts but couldn't explain it. They had no
frame of reference--the rules were changing. Ippon
Shobu has a different strategy than Sanbon Shobu.
Sensei, I understand that you were also ranked nationally
in Japan for kata. How important is kata in Gensei-Ryu?
What kata is included in the curriculum?
We do the mandatory kata used by the WKF (WUKO).
We also do kata unique to our style of Gensei-Ryu.
How many Gensei - Ryu kata are there?
There are seven. I demonstrated Sansai Sho for you.
I am still learning the others. Sansai Sho is probably
the most well known of our kata. It is used in the
When did you come to America?
The first time I came here was in 1981. I stayed
for 3 or 4 months at Mr. Yamazaki's dojo in Anaheim.
Later, in 1982, the Huntington Beach dojo sent me
tickets to come here. I have been here ever since!
Within a very short time your students were ranked
nationally and competing internationally. What was
the training like in those early days? Marutani:
I didn't teach much as far as technique. Some Americans
get caught up in asking questions. I told them not
to worry about the competition. Win or lose--it
didn't matter. Just go to the tournament... their
bodies would understand. Back then we had mini-training
camps...two or three times a week. Every morning
we ran 10 miles. After that, we would train. It
helped to teach them about stamina. We wanted to
push the competitor...to make the preparation more
difficult than the actual competition. It is like
hitting a very heavy bag. When you switch to a smaller
What does the American kumite competitor need to
do to win at the international level?
Most competitors are not skilled in basic things
like distance control, body evasion, situational
strategy, time management... things like this. These
sorts of skills should be "second nature"
to a competitor. I think that this is the biggest
weakness here...especially when compared to the
stronger teams like Japan, France, etc., etc. These
teams had a better understanding of competition
even 15 years ago.
You stress distance control and body rotation/evasion
in your seminars. These are much higher level/ more
sophisticated skills than what is normally taught
today. Is this the next step for the typical American
Yes. A lot of these ideas came to me from my own
competition days. Back then, it was basically full-contact...
I would just fly at my opponent...and I didn't have
any teeth!! I went to the dentist and he joked with
me that I was too weak--after every tournament I
showed up in his office!! I started thinking about
things and began to experiment. I would put pressure
on the opponent...both physically and mentally.
I never backed up. I pressed, I hit, I pushed...naturally,
I lost some...but I won a lot more! About 3 or 4
years ago, I began to train seriously with weapons.
It changes the atmosphere. Everyone worries about
getting hit with a weapon. It can be a bo or nunchaku
or sword...it doesn't matter. It got me to think
more and more about the distance. When I moved in
close, the opponent couldn't hit me. If you analyze
a punch...the fist is the fastest point and the
shoulder is the slowest--if you stop the shoulder
you don't have to worry too much about the fist.
It loses most (if not all) of its power.
Your weapons training has been recent, but it has
helped you to develop your entry skills, how to
get in closer and gives you a better understanding
for distance and body control?
Yes, I didn't show many of these techniques today,
perhaps I should have--how to balance your shoulders,
hips and knees to get more control and ease of movement...
nobody really explained it to me...so we learned
how to block, how to move our spines and big joints
efficiently and economically on our own. That's
what helped them to learn their skills. My responsiblity
is to teach my students, not only what is easy and
what I like, but how things work. I was thinking
about why a punch has tobe countered with this block
or that block. I enjoyed sparring, the movement...
and you got hit. People told me that it was too
dangerous and I know--I got hit hard sometimes.
It's like in soccer however, if you learn to absorb
the power of the ball you can avoid injury... I
think that sparring should be taught first in Karate,
and after you've learned how to move that way you
should move on to learning Kata. I learned Kata
through the fighting when I was beginning.
Can you tell us about the Japanese Instructors Club?
Right now there are over forty of us from all styles.
Just a month ago we got together and had a good
time. We get together as often as we can but it's
hard. Before the club, when we were at the tournaments
it was usually with six or seven competitors each,
and it was difficult to discuss things. I want to
learn what other people are thinking and saying
about Karate for the future. It gives us a place
to pool our knowledge, and be sure that things are
passed on from one generation to the next. It's
an easy concept to explain in Japanese--very difficult
in English... For my generation, it means passing
on what we learned from the last generation to the
next generation--it also means that the new Japanese
instructors coming here should not expect to control
American Karate, that there are already sempai here...
there will be a place for them to get advice and
guidance. It works both ways.
So far you've had training sessions with Nishiyama
Yes, with Mr. Nishiyama, as well as Mr. Higaonna.
It seems to me that you've come into Karate from
the Kumite or sparring side, and the more you've
learned, the more you have come to understand that
the Kata training is a necessary thing to help the
students to learn and grow?
To completely understand Kata, if it is the right
instructor teaching the basics, it is the same thing.
Kata has to equal useful sparring, that's what we
learn. Sometimes that concept is lost. For example,
some highly rated Kata competitors score well but
they can't hit. They practice their Kata like gymnastics
or a dance. I didn't want to get into that so I
concentrated on teaching sparring--to teach realistic
movement. My student, Kevin Chen, is Chinese, so
he brings books on Chinese martial arts and we compare...
the movements may be similiar but the execution
and meaning is different. So that's like Kata--the
Kata itself is very important, but so is the the
student's understanding of the meaning of the movement.
So it's helped you, because you've taken your competition
experience and applied it to the performance of
the Kata--unlike some American competitors who do
Kata--not performing the Kata with real understanding
of the basics or possible applications?
Yes, like when you perform Kata you are supposed
to be facing an opponent--every instructor will
tell you that, but the competitors eyes are wrong...
you know in Sparring, everybody's eyes change--they
get fighter's eyes, but you don't always see that
You continue to train and develop, is there anything
special that you are doing... any new arts to learn?
I enjoy doing basics more and more every day--kiba
dachi, forward stances, hit the makiwara, combinations...
and I enjoy sparring with the kids. They hit me
with all their power, and I learn how to absorb
the impact better. I learn how they move and what
to expect from them.
Do you practice any other arts?
Boxing, or anything else--I'll watch. During high
school I practiced Judo as part of the physical
education. I enjoy watching it. The movements are
very similiar to Karate.
Mr. Reynolds' Yoshinkan Aikido classes uses the
facilities here at the Huntington Beach Dojo...
do you watch the classes or otherwise become involved?
With your participation in the instructors' club,
you always have the opportunity to learn--do you
consider yourself still a student?
Yes, I always want to learn something. I want to
research more into the relationship between basics,
Kata, and Kumite. I've seen too many demonstrations
of Karate that are basically the same thing, and
not done very well. I would like to be able to present
demonstrations that really show what Karate is about,
and are meaningful for future Karate students...
I was really impressed by some AIKIDO demonstrations
I've seen. It looks like dancing, but the fundamental
movements and concepts are sound. Karate instructors
have to prepare for the future, for when they are
done... that's what Mr. Demura is trying to do.
To pass on to the next generation what we have been
taught, and what we have learned, so that they can
do the same in the future... Part of what I am worried
about is the manner in which Karate is taught today--I
think there should be more emphasis in the basics.
One of the concepts that came out of Nishiyama Sensei's
summer camp this year in La Jolla, California was
that regular training in the Dojo should not be
different from competition training--that your training
in the Dojo should leave you prepared to compete
at any time. Do you think that this reflects on
some of your own philosophies about training?
Some things that Mr. Nishiyama talks about I absolutely
agree with... He said that Dojo sparring equals
Tournament sparring. I don't train my students with
one or two punches... we free-spar every day and
have special training on Saturday. We hit each other
over and over...we learn to move our bodies to avoid
the kick or punch... we need to understand that
the movement can also be a treasure of Karate. DT:
Some people would say that one of the weaknesses
of American Karate today is that it has become a
business... that compromises have been made to keep
the students from leaving?
Somebody told me that it was bad if the students
sweat too much after a workout... that you had to
think about the students. I didn't change my workouts.
People who join have to understand what they are
getting into. To develop your mind and body, you
have to sweat. The school is not joining the student,
the student is joining the school. I try to teach
like this is a church, and that people who join
have to make a different kind of donation. If I
taught like this was a college, people coming for
one semester and then saying goodbye--I couldn't
have the correct control to teach.
It is difficult because the American culture is
not that way.
Yes, and that's my problem. I have to change. If
you said something to the students, probably they
would stay. Having a conversation to explain why
I won't change the workout would probably help.
My English is getting better so probably that's
why I have more students.
Are there any GENSEI-RYU instructors in Europe?
Yes, there some Japanese instructors in the Netherlands.
If you had an opportunity to do seminars in Europe,
Any time, any where. I have students in Brazil,
and the Dominican Republic... so if you go to South
America, people would know about GENSEI-RYU.